The Greco-Indian-Chinese-Arabic Golden Age!


The Golden Age of Græco-ʿArabic Science lasted from the 750s to the 1450s, for a period of approximately 700 years. It began in Baghdād, spread to Qāhirah and Qurṭūbah, and concluded in Samarqand. What follows are the references and sources cited in the course of my presentation, with some additional resources and annotations.

To clarify any ambiguities: The first science to be embraced by the ʿAbbāsiyyūn and to receive imperial patronage—and thus to initiate the large-scale ʿAbbāsī translation movement, hence leading to the Golden Age—was Sāsānī-Persian astrology. It wasn’t ḥajj-inspired geography, inheritance-inspired mathematics or qiblah-inspired astronomy – instead, it was the imperial ʿAbbāsī obsession with Sāsānī-Persian astrology and their subsequent translation of pre-Islāmic Persian scientific texts, resulting directly from the Persianisation of ʿAbbāsī culture, the Persian foundations and provenance of the ʿAbbāsī dynasty, and Emperor Al-Manṣūr’s efforts to emulate the Sāsānī shāhs of pre-Islāmic Persia. Moreover, astrology is explicitly and vehemently forbidden and decried as kufr (unbelief) in the Sunnah and traditional Islām, further alienating the root cause of the Golden Age from religion and religious inspiration.

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